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Adiponectin

Adiponectin is a 30kDa protein which percentage in serum proteins is 0.01%. It is mainly synthesized by Adipocytes, but also muscle cells and hepatocytes have the ability to synthesize Adiponectin. Until now, IGF-I is the only known natural inductor of the synthesis. It consists of a Collagen-like N-terminal and a globular C-terminal domain. In vivo Adiponectin appears with different oligomers. Beside the trimer and ditrimer also high molecular multimers exist (1-3). Up to now two different receptors are known, both receptors are ubiquitary expressed, though the distribution in the tissues varies. The Adiponectin Receptor 1 (AdipoR1) is especially in muscle- and AdipoR2 in liver tissue synthesized. The significance for the human organism is not clear until now. First studies show, that adiponectin correlates negatively with BMI and thus it could have relevance for the energy metabolism for example through the regulation of fatty acid oxidation. Beside the correlation with BMI, Adiponectin level is associated with the Insulin-Resistance and so also linked with Type II Diabetes. Adiponectin is associated also with glucose- and lipometabolism.
Furthermore it is involved in inflammatory processes and therewith it is of importance for appearance of arteriosclerosis and coronaritis, thus the determination of Adiponectin level in plasma could serve to estimate the risk of coronary disease. Beside this Adiponectin influences further physiological processes as for example the angiogenesis.

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