Diabetes mellitus is a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism. It is a disease characterized by persistent hyperglycemia (high blood sugar levels). It is a metabolic disease that requires medical diagnosis, treatment and lifestyle changes. There are three main forms of diabetes: type 1, type 2 and gestational diabetes (or type 3, occurring during pregnancy), although these three “types” of diabetes are more accurately considered patterns of pancreatic failure rather than single diseases.
- Type 1 is due to autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing cells
- Type 2 and gestational diabetes are due to insulin resistance by tissues